General modeling framework and you will prior apps
The fresh new GTEM-C design had previously been validated and made use of in CSIRO Worldwide Incorporated Testing Modeling design (GIAM) to add technology-built evidence to possess ple, choice greenhouse gasoline (GHG) emissions pathways on Garnaut Remark, and therefore studied the latest has an effect on out-of weather alter for the Australian economy (Garnaut, 2011), the lower toxic contamination futures system you to definitely explored the economic affects regarding reducing carbon dioxide emissions in australia (Australia, 2008) and the socio-financial issues of one’s Australian Federal Mindset and enterprise one to explored backlinks between physics and also the benefit and you can install 20 futures having Australia off to 2050 (Hatfield-Dodds mais aussi al., 2015). In the context of agro-business economics a predecessor of the GTEM-C model was utilized so you can evaluate financial consequences regarding weather changes impacts towards the farming. This new GTEM-C design try a core part throughout the GIAM framework, a hybrid design that mixes the top-off macroeconomic expression of a good computable standard harmony (CGE) model on the bottom-right up information on producing energy and you can GHG pollutants.
GTEM-C creates abreast of the global trading and economic key of your Around the globe Change Research Enterprise (GTAP) (Hertel, 1997) databases (Come across Supplementary Advice). This approach has the benefit of a holistic comprehension of the energy-carbon-environment nexus (Akhtar ainsi que al., 2013) and has been intensively useful for circumstance research of the feeling https://datingranking.net/tr/chatfriends-inceleme/ from you’ll environment futures to your socio-ecological possibilities (Masui et al., 2011; Riahi et al., 2011).
Breakdown of the fresh new GTEM-C design
GTEM-C is a standard harmony and you can savings-wider design ready projecting trajectories for internationally-traded products, including farming affairs. Absolute information, land and you will labor are endogenous variables for the GTEM-C. Skilled and you will inexperienced labor moves easily all over all of the domestic circles, although aggregate have increases centered on group and you can labour force involvement assumptions that’s constrained by the available doing work population, which is offered exogenously to your model according to research by the United nations average people increases trajectory (Un, 2017). Brand new simulations displayed in this data have been performed function GTEM-C’s precision during the 95% account. Worldwide residential property town devoted to farming isn’t likely to alter substantially in the future; however, the new GTEM-C model changes harvesting urban area from inside the regions based on consult for the read merchandise.
As is proper when using a CGE modelling framework, our results are based on the differences between a reference scenario and two counterfactual scenarios. The reference scenario assumes RCP8.5 carbon emissions but does not include perturbations in agricultural productivity due to climate. The RCP8.5 counterfactual scenario results in an increase in global temperatures above 2 °C by 2050 relative to pre-industrial levels. The agricultural productivities in the reference scenario are internally resolved within the GTEM-C model to meet global demand for food, assuming that technological improvements are able to buffer the influence of climate change on agricultural production. For the two counterfactual scenarios presented here, we use future agricultural productivities obtained from the AgMIP database to change GTEM-C’s total factor productivities of the four studied commodities. The counterfactual scenario with no climate change mitigation follows the RCP8.5 emission but includes exogenous agricultural perturbations from the AgMIP database. This is, changes in agricultural productivity rates were not internally calculated by GTEM-C but given by the AgMIP projections. The RCP 4.5 scenario with climate change mitigation assumes an active CO2 mitigation achieved by imposing a global carbon price, so that additional radiative forcing begins to stabilise at about 4 Wm ?2 after 2050. The carbon mitigation scenario includes exogenously perturbed agricultural productivities as modelled by the AgMIP project under RCP4.5. The RCP4.5 scenario limits global temperature increase to 1.5 °C, relative to pre-industrial levels.